Chronic Kidney Disease & Treatment
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Reference Point in Kidney Diseases and Treatments
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Let's Know Our Kidneys and Kidney Diseases
First of all, we should know our kidneys and know how to protect against kidney diseases.
Our kidneys work non-stop 24/7 and remove excess water and waste products from our body. These excess body fluid and waste products are excreted from our body through urine.
Our kidneys are also has important duties in its subjects:
- Acid – Base balance,
- Electrolyte balance,
- Hormone production and destruction,
- Blood pressure control,
- Red blood cell production,
- Bone cycle,
- Lipid metabolism.
When the kidneys start to lose their functions and become inadequate, they will not be able to fulfill their aforementioned duties. In this case, our body collects excessive water and starts to collect in the blood in waste products, our hormone balance is disturbed, our blood values decrease, our blood pressure rises, the pH value of the body decreases and acidosis begins. This condition is called uremia and you start to feel sick.
Don’t worry right away; different renal replacement treatment options that will do the work of your kidneys are included in the “Treatment Methods” section.
There are many factors that can cause chronic kidney disease, such as;
- High blood pressure (Hypertension)
- Polycystic Kidney Disease
- Smoking and alcohol habits
- Family history of kidney disease
As with any disease, early diagnosis is very important in kidney disease. The following symptoms occur when the kidneys start to function poorly, with water and waste products accumulating in the blood;
- Flank pain
- Swelling in the hands, face and legs
- Shortness of breath
- Nausea and vomiting
- Increased or decreased urine output
- High blood pressure
In the initial stages of chronic kidney disease, your doctor will perform Preventive Treatment. In preventive treatment, it is tried to slow down the course of the disease with the help of diet and medication. However, if you have advanced disease, you will need treatment that performs most of the kidney functions. There are 3 treatment options for this:
- Kidney Transplant
- Peritoneal Dialysis
Stages of the Disease
Knowing the stages of the disease is important for proper treatment and quality of life.
CKD: Chronic Kidney Disease is when your kidneys are not working enough to keep you healthy. Early diagnosis is very important, although the process cannot be reversed, it can be delayed by correct treatment and lifestyle changes, and in some cases it can be stopped. If you have kidney disease, learn very well what you need to do for your treatment; The right treatment and lifestyle will help you stay healthier and increase your life time. Be in constant contact with your doctor and act together to stop or at least slow the progression of the disease by controlling and monitoring the underlying causes of your disease.
The stages of CKD are divided into 5 phases.(CKD 1-5).
CKD stage 3 is often divided into subdivisions 3a and 3b. For easy understanding, it is defined as follows:
- Early Stage: CKD stages 1 to 3
- Late Stage: CKD stages from 3b to 5
You need to know your disease stage to keep track of whether your illness is progressing. You have to shape your life accordingly. The disease stage is determined by the Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) and the level of Albuminuria. Therefore, you need to know what GFR and Albuminuria are. The following topics contain information on this topic.
Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) is a simple blood test that measures creatinine levels in our blood as well as measurement of kidney function, which can be calculated taking into account age, race, sex and other factors.
Our doctors plan your treatment by monitoring the stage of your kidney disease thanks to GFH. The lower your GFR value, the higher the risk of disease progression.
As much as GFR, the level of albuminuria is also important for monitoring the stage of your disease.
Albumin is a type of protein normally found in the blood. Our body always needs this protein. Protein is an important ingredient that helps muscle building, tissue repair and fighting infection. But protein must be present in the blood, not in the urine. If urine contains albumin (protein), it is called “albuminuria” or “proteinuria”. If our kidney is healthy, it will not allow albumin to pass from the blood to urine. if it is damaged, it allows the album to urinate.
Albuminuria means that there is an excessive amount of protein in the urine and your kidneys are not draining your blood well enough. Albuminuria can be determined using a simple urine measuring stick to see if protein is present in your urine. The higher your albuminuria level, the higher the risk of your disease progressing.
Chronic Kidney Disease stages are defined as 1 – 3a Early Stage. At this stage, most people have almost no symptoms or very few complaints, which makes it difficult to determine the level of CKD. Therefore, early diagnosis is very important in suspicion of CKD. Applying appropriate treatment in these early stages can slow down or even prevent the disease. Therefore, it is very important to know which symptoms may occur and what you can do at which stage.
Early Stage Symptoms
CKD Stage 1: At this stage, the Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) is above 90 ml / min or higher. Because CKD is the mildest form and affected people may not experience any signs or symptoms and may have difficulty diagnosing.
CKD Stage 2: Due to kidney damage, GFR drops to 60-89 ml / min at this stage. There are not enough symptoms at this stage to show that the kidneys are damaged.
CKD Stage 3: At this level, the person has moderate burrito damage.
At 3a, GFR is at the level of 45-49 ml / min and the patient may not show any related symptoms.
Stage 3b – 5 are late stages of CKD. At this stage, the function of your kidneys drops significantly. Due to the failure of our kidneys to function, excessive water in our body and waste products accumulate in the blood, uremia occurs.
At this late stage, it is important to do everything carefully, otherwise the disease may go up to kidney failure. If the kidneys are no longer functioning enough, if the kidney’s function drops to 10-15% of normal, lost functions are met through dialysis or kidney transplantation.
CKD Stage 3b is included in the late stage. At this stage, moderate kidney damage occurred and GFR is 30-44 ml / min. The symptoms are clearer; symptoms such as low blood count, malnutrition, bone pain, tingling or numbness in the body, difficulty focusing, and generally feeling unwell.In
CKD Stage 4, there is advanced damage to the kidney, GFR is at the level of 15-30 ml / min. In addition to the above symptoms, bone disease, restless legs, skin itching and anemia are the most common symptoms.Anemia; It means fatigue, difficulty in concentration, loss of appetite, bloating, shortness of breath and pale skin in our body, especially in the legs and around the eyes.
In CKD Stage 5, GFH is 15 ml / min or less due to high kidney damage. Kidney transplantation is required as the kidneys lose almost all of their ability to work.
What are the Treatment Methods?
Millions of people lead a healthy active life with the right methods. Our doctors will recommend the most suitable of the 3 treatment methods that are applied successfully.
Dialysis is a process that provides the most basic function of the kidneys to be met;
- The removal of excess water in our body and
- Removal of waste products accumulated in the blood.
Dialysis should also be supported by proper nutrition. It is possible to keep the water and waste levels in your body at an acceptable level with a proper and specially planned nutrition program.
In addition, in line with your doctor’s recommendation, it can be provided with medications that your kidneys cannot provide, to produce red blood cells and to keep your bones strong.
There are 3 treatment methods that can be applied when your kidneys fail to function due to kidney damage.
- Peritoneal Dialysis
- Kidney Transplant
You should choose the most appropriate treatment method for you with your doctor.
As FETHİYE DIALYSIS CENTER, we offer you our expert staff, modern technology equipment and Hemodialysis Treatment service in the comfort you will feel at home.
Hemodialysis occurs outside the body. Blood is taken out via a vein access route and returned to this vein after cleaning.
Fistula: It is a vascular access path created by combining an artery and vein to allow high volume of blood flow to be cleaned in hemodialysis.
Peritoneal Dialysis takes place inside the body. It is the process of cleansing the patient’s blood from harmful substances and ensuring the balance of fluid in the body by using a patient’s own abdominal membrane (peritoneum) with a specially prepared solution that is inserted into the patient’s abdominal cavity through a small operation and given through a thin, soft, silicone permanent tube (catheter). .
The catheter is a tube that can be inserted into a body cavity, vein, or canal. In this way, catheters, together with surgical instruments, help drainage, inject or remove fluids. In many cases, although the catheter is a narrow and flexible tube, in some cases wide and hard tubes are also used.
For acceptors, a donated kidney is a very important issue that allows all chronic kidney patients to live more freely, without dietary restrictions. Sufficient knowledge of transplantation requires serious evaluation with Specialist Doctors. We would like to enlighten you a little about this.
What is a kidney transplant?
Almost all (but not all) chronic kidney patients are suitable for transplantation. But the first step (step) for this is to evaluate with your nephrologist because he is the one who knows your overall health and kidney condition best.
If your nephrologist confirms your candidacy and the transplant is decided, you can be transplanted from a live donor after your necessary checks and tests are completed, or you join the national organ transplant list to get kidneys from the cadaver (someone who passed away).
Tissue compatibility required?
The donor (donor) and recipient must have blood group and tissue compatibility, eliminating the risk of the recipient’s body rejecting the transplanted kidney. For this reason, laboratory tests are applied for compliance control before transplant surgery.
Being a Acceptor and a Donor
As you know, kidney transplantation is taken from a living relative or cadaver. Kidney intake from a living donor can be regulated by law, from someone in your family, from a relative like your partner or friend.The biggest advantage of transplantation from a living person is that if the person who wants to donate has tissue compatibility, the procedure can be carried out immediately. Transplantation from cadavers requires you to be registered on the national transplant list and wait patiently until a compatible kidney is donated.
What Kidney Donors Should Know
The donor (donor) must have learned all the risks from the doctor about the surgery performed to remove one of his healthy kidneys. It should be confirmed that the other (remaining) kidney is in good health to filter the wastes and whether it can perform this task adequately after surgery should be monitored periodically.
When the kidney is found, transplant surgery should be done as soon as possible so that your kidneys and body are not damaged further. In the kidney supplied from cadaver, an operation must be performed within hours.The condition of the provided kidney is checked and if there is no infection in your own kidney, a new one is placed next to it, it is discarded and the vessels are connected to the vein without being removed.
Side Effect (Complication) Probability
You should know all the potential risks for transplant;
- Rejection of the new kidney,
- Kidney Life
Medications to suppress the immune system are given to reduce the risk of kidney rejection by your body. It is vital to use these medicines given by your doctor in a timely and dose manner. Since these drugs will suppress your immune system, you can become open to other diseases, so you will need to take care of yourself to prevent postoperative infections.
Functionality is another important issue. While the new kidney starts to work immediately after the operation, it may take several days in some cases. Sometimes dialysis support is required to start normal function.
It will lose its function in time in transplanted kidneys. Generally, its life span is about 10-15 years. Afterwards, the possibility of returning to dialysis may occur or organ transplantation may be performed again.
We recommend that you always keep in touch with your nephrologist on an important issue such as transplant. As FETHİYE DIALYSIS CENTER, we are always at your side for transport or any other issues.